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Environment Magazine September/October 2008

 

September/October 2008

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Additional Information for Tables 1 and 2

Table 1: Calculation Strategies and Methods

Transportation


As noted in the article, the transportation analyses, except for general aviation, relied on Table 1-37, “U.S. Passenger Miles (updated 12/07)” in National Transportation Statistics, 2007. Table 1-37 reports the total number of passenger miles traveled in 2005 via different modes of transportation but does not distinguish individual/household energy consumption with consumption resulting from business travel. The strategies for statistically disaggregating travel and determining the individual/household portion are summarized here.

Private motor vehicles: For private motor vehicles (autos, vans, sport utility vehicles (SUVs), light trucks, etc.) three analytical approaches were used to estimate the individual/household portion of energy consumed. Although each approach is flawed, they yielded similar estimates. Table 3 presents the average of the three approaches.

The first method used the U.S. Department of Labor’s National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) 2001 (Database) to estimate the percentage of total passenger miles for each motor-vehicle type for nonwork-related purposes. This database contains the annualized miles traveled by a large sample of respondents, broken down by purpose of travel (shopping, vacation, commuting, work-related, etc.) and vehicle type (passenger car, motorcycle, light truck, etc.). However, the NHTS database includes two subdatabases that overlap, one for “day trips” (trips that begin and end in a single 24-hour period) and one for “long trips” (trips 50 miles and over). Thus, any trip longer than 50 miles that is completed in a 24-hour period is counted in both subdatabases. It was mathematically impossible to totally remove this overlap of the two subdatabases. An attempt to partially correct for the overlap was made by averaging the percentage of total travel miles for each subdatabase and vehicle type that was not “work-related,” weighing the percentage for each vehicle type by the total travel miles in each sub database. The calculated percentage was reduced by 10 percent, based on a mathematical subanalysis of the likely effect of the remaining subdatabase overlap. Finally, for each vehicle type, the weighted, reduced percentage of nonwork-related travel was multiplied by the figure for passenger miles for that vehicle type in Table 1-37, “U.S. Passenger Miles” in National Transportation Statistics, 2007. Each resulting product was multiplied by a figure for British thermal units (Btus)-per-passenger mile for each vehicle type, derived from Table 4-20, “Energy Intensity of Passenger Modes (Btu-per-passenger-mile)” in National Transportation Statistics, 2007. The final results were total annual Btus energy consumed by individuals/households for each vehicle type, excluding travel that was explicitly work-related, but including travel/commuting to work.

The second method used data from the U.S. Department of Labor’s Consumer Expenditures Survey, 2005. This survey asked large samples of Americans to keep track of their personal expenditures for all goods, services, utilities, etc. for various periods of time. Annualized reported expenditures were used for “gasoline and motor oil.” Assuming that motor oil costs would be negligible compared to gasoline costs, the reported expenditure was counted as entirely on gasoline. The total number of gallons of gasoline purchased was estimated by using 2005 gasoline prices per gallon (from Figure 1 of A Primer on Gasoline Prices, 2006) which was then multiplied by a figure for Btu-per-gallon of gasoline, from “Energy (Heat) Content (kW, Btu) of Fuels” in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Unit Conversions, Emissions Factors, and Other Reference Data, 2004. This yielded an estimate of total Btus consumed by private motor vehicles. Six percent was added to this total based on the following reasoning: The database combines respondent inputs on written expenditure diaries that cover one-week periods and on personal interviews covering expenditures for three-month periods. Overnight trips are excluded from the written diaries and tapped only in the personal interviews. Given that the personal interviews depend on respondents’ memories for three-month periods, gasoline costs for overnight trips may have been underreported. Our choice of 6 percent was based on the same percentage of total average mileage underreporting (compared to actual odometer readings) by respondents found in the NHTS 2001, see Table 8-10 of the Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 26-2007. This underreporting is not considered a problem in the first methods, which used nonwork-related mileage percentages of total travel miles reported in the NHTS 2001, rather than reported mileages.

The third method used the only federal statistic that disaggregated individual/household versus other motor vehicle travel—a short report about the NHTS 2001 survey: Rising Fuel Cost—A Big Impact, in NHTS Brief, U.S. Department of Transportation, 2006. The report included the single statistic that “….private (passenger) vehicle travel accounts for 82 percent of all vehicle miles of travel…[in 2001] (Highway Statistics, 2005).” In this method, 82 percent of the passenger miles listed for each vehicle type was used, in Table 1-37, “U.S. Passenger Miles (updated 12/07),” in National Transportation Statistics, 2007. The resulting product was multiplied by a figure for Btus-per-passenger-mile derived from Table 4-20, “Energy Intensity of Passenger Modes (Btu per passenger-mile)” in National Transportation Statistics, 2007 to give an estimate of total annual Btu of energy consumed by individuals/households for each vehicle type.

Air Travel: For travel on commercial aviation (airlines), the same strategy was used as in the first method for private motor vehicles energy consumption. The NHTS 2001 database was used for reported miles of commercial aviation travel, taking the weighted average of the percentage of total travel miles for each subdatabase (day trips and long trips) that was nonwork-related. The resulting percentage were reduced by 10 percent. The weighted, reduced percentage were multiplied by the figure for passenger miles for commercial aviation in Table 1-37, “U.S. Passenger Miles” (updated 12/07) in National Transportation Statistics, 2007. Each resulting product was multiplied by a figure for Btu-per-passenger-mile for “Air, Certified Carrier” derived from Table 4-20, “Energy Intensity of Passenger Modes (Btu per passenger-mile)” in National Transportation Statistics, 2007, averaging domestic” and international operations. The final results were total annual Btu energy consumed by individuals/households for commercial aviation. The estimates excluded travel that was explicitly work-related, but included travel/commuting to work.

A slightly different strategy was used for general aviation (private aircraft). To being, the total passenger miles for general aviation for 2001 and total fuel consumed in that sector for 2001 and for 2005 were used, from the “General Aviation Profile” in Appendix A—Modal Profiles, of National Transportation Statistics, 2007. Total passenger miles (not given for 2005) were extrapolated from the 2001 figure using the total fuel consumed for 2001 and for 2005. Estimated total passenger miles for 2005 were adjusted to eliminate work-related travel as in the first method for private motor vehicles. That is, this data was used in the NHTS 2001 database on respondents’ reported miles of general aviation travel to determine the percentage of total travel miles for each subdatabase (day trips and long trips) that was not work-related, averaging the percentage for each by the total travel miles in each subdatabase. The average percentage was reduced by 10 percent as for motor vehicles. The resulting percentage was multiplied by total passenger miles for 2005 (above), and, finally, multiplied the result by 10,165 Btus-per-passenger-mile, a figure found in the notes section of Table 4-8, “Energy Consumption by Mode of Travel” from National Transportation Statistics, 2007. The final result was total annual Btu of energy consumed by individuals/households for travel by general aviation.

Mass transportation and other: The same strategy as in the first method was used for private motor vehicles. Data from Table 1-37, “U.S. Passenger Miles,” in National Transportation Statistics, 2007 and the NHTS 2001 database was combined. A correspondence between the databases was established on the following modes of mass transportation: highway bus, intercity rail/Amtrak, and the modes listed under “transit” in Table 1-37: motor bus (includes trolley bus), rail transit (includes light rail, heavy rail, and commuter rail), ferry boats, and other. The NHTS 2001 database also includes cruise ships, which was added to other. For each mode, the NHTS 2001 database was used to calculate reported miles of travel taking the weighted average of the percentage of total travel miles for each subdatabase (day trips and long trips) that was nonwork-related. The resulting percentage was reduced by 10 percent and multiplied the weighted, reduced percentage by the corresponding figure for total passenger miles in Table 1-37, “U.S. Passenger Miles” in National Transportation Statistics, 2007. Each resulting product was multiplied by a figure for Btu-per-passenger-mile derived as follows:

  • Highway bus: Table 4-20, National Transportation Statistics, 2007;
  • Intercity rail/Amtrak: “Energy Efficient Travel,” Amtrak, 2007;
  • Motor bus: Table 4-20, National Transportation Statistics, 2007;
  • Rail transit: U.S. Department of Energy, "U.S. Fact #221: June 17, 2002, Transit Rail Energy Intensity Varies by System";
  • Ferry boats: M.J. Bradley & Associates, “1 Results of Analysis,” in Comparison of Energy Use & CO2 Emissions From Different Transportation Modes, 2007; and
  • Other (transit): the average of three transit items (motor bus, rail-transit, and ferry boats (see above)), weighted by total passenger miles for each; and cruise ships (included under “other”), from Gossling (2002), which was the only reference found on energy consumption efficiency on cruise ships.

The final results, in total annual Btu of energy consumed by individuals/households for the different mass transportation modes, including “other,” were totaled as the basis for the entry in the table.

Additional Sources

U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT), Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), National Transportation Statistics, 2007, http://www.bts.gov/publications/national_transportation_statistics (accessed 12 February 2008).

U.S. Department of Labor (DOL), Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), Consumer Expenditures Survey, 2005, 2007 February, http://www.bls.gov/cex/csxann05.pdf (accessed 20 February 2008).

U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Information Administration (EIA), A Primer on Gasoline Prices, 2006 May, Figure 1, http://www.eia.doe.gov/bookshelf/brochures/gasolinepricesprimer/eia1_2005primerM.html (accessed 20 February 2008).

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Energy (Heat) Content (kW, Btu) of Fuels in Unit Conversions, Emissions Factors, and Other Reference Data, 2004 November, http://www.epa.gov/cpd/pdf/brochure.pdf (accessed 12 February 2008), 3.

DOE, “Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy,” prepared by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 26-2007, Table 8-10, http://cta.ornl.gov/data/download26.shtml (accessed 12 February 2008).

DOT, Federal Highway Administration, "Rising Fuel Cost—A Big Impact," in NHTS Brief, 2006 June, http://nhts.ornl.gov/2001/pub/Impact_of_Fuel_Costs (accessed 20 February 2008).

DOT, BTS, National Transportation Statistics, 2007, “General Aviation Profile” in Appendix A—Modal Profiles, http://www.bts.gov/publications/national_transportation_statistics/html/table_general_aviation_
profile.html (accessed 12 February 2008).

Amtrak, National Railroad Passenger Corporation, Energy Efficient Travel, 2007,
http://www.amtrak.com/servlet/ContentServer?pagename=Amtrak/am2Copy/
Title_Image_Copy_Page&cid=1093554056875&c=am2Copy&ssid=565 (accessed 18 February 2008).

DOE, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Programs, "U.S. Fact #221: June 17, 2002, Transit Rail Energy Intensity Varies by System," http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/facts/favorites/fcvt_fotw221.html (accessed 18 February 2008).

“1 Results of Analysis,” in Comparison of Energy Use & CO2 Emissions From Different Transportation Modes (Manchester, NH: M. J. Bradley & Associates, June 2007, submitted to the American Bus Association), http://www.buses.org/files/ComparativeEnergy.pdf.

S. Gossling, “Global Environmental Consequences of Tourism,” Global Environmental Change 12 (2002): 289.

In-home Uses

Table A4, “Residential Sector Key Indicators and Consumption,” in Annual Energy Outlook, 2007.


Table 2: Supplementary Material


Transportation: Motor Vehicles

Carpool to work with one other person: Data derived from Table 1 of this article, especially the breakdowns for “purpose of trip” in the DOL, National Household Travel Survey 2001 (Database), http://nhts.ornl.gov/ (accessed 1 January 2008).

Alter driving—avoid sudden acceleration and stops: EPA and DOE, Driving More Efficiently, http://www.fueleconomy.gov/feg/driveHabits.shtml (accessed 1 February 2008).

Cut highway speed from 70 to 60 mph: EPA and DOE, Driving More Efficiently, http://www.fueleconomy.gov/feg/driveHabits.shtml (accessed 1 February 2008).

Buy a more fuel efficient automobile (30.7 mpg compared to 20.0 mpg EPA adjusted composite figures): Twenty mpg is the average adjusted composite EPA fuel economy for automobiles and light trucks model year 2000. The average for model year 1995 is 20.5 mpg, according to the EPA, Light-Duty Automotive Technology and Fuel Economy Trends: 1995–2007, http://www.epa.gov/otaq/cert/mpg/fetrends/420r07008 (accessed 2 February 2008). The 30.7 mpg figure (average adjusted composite EPA fuel economy) is based on a subset of the 20 most fuel efficient vehicles from the EPA and DOE’s “Model Year 2008 Fuel Economy Leaders” in Model Year 2008 Fuel Economy Guide, http://www.fueleconomy.gov (accessed 2 February 2008). The subset excludes pickup trucks and vans, but includes “economy leaders” in all other categories of vehicles, including two-seater, minicompact, subcompact, compact, and large cars, as well as small and midsized station wagons, minivans, and small SUVs. Again, the subset consists of the 20 most fuel efficient motor vehicles that can be bought in the United States for the 2008 model year.

Get frequent tune-ups, including air filter changes: EPA and DOE, “Keeping Your Car in Shape,” Driving More Efficiently, op cit.; and Sierra Club, “Fast Fact,” The Green Life, November 2007, http://sierraclub.typepad.com/greenlife/2007 (accessed 1 February 2008).

Buy low-rolling resistance tires: American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, “Driving Green,” Green Driving Tips, http://www.greenercars.org/drivingtips.htm (accessed 10 June 2008).

Maintain correct tire inflation: EPA and DOE, “Keeping Your Car in Shape,” Driving More Efficiently, op cit.; and American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, “Driving Green,” Green Driving Tips, http://www.greenercars.org/drivingtips.htm (accessed 10 June 2008).

Space Conditioning: Heat

Turn down thermostat: DOE, EERE, Federal Energy Management Program, An Operations & Maintenance Focus Lowers Cost, Increases Efficiency (11 November 2004), http://www1.eere.energy.gov/femp/newsevents/fempfocus_article.cfm/news_id=8310 (accessed 1 February 2008); and DOE, EERE, “Thermostats and Control Systems,” A Consumer’s Guide to Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (11 January 2008),
http://www.eere.energy.gov/ consumer/your_home/space_heating_cooling/index.cfm/mytopic=12720 (accessed 25 January 2008.

Install/upgrade attic insulation and ventilation: U.S. Greenhouse Gas Abatement Mapping Initiative, Reducing U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions: How Much at What Cost? (Washington, DC: McKinsey & Company, 2007 December): 39, http://www.mckinsey.com/clientservice/ccsi/pdf/US_ghg_final_report.pdf (accessed 4 May 2008).

Install more efficient heating equipment: Note that gas furnaces and boilers now produce 76 percent of U.S. residential space heat. U.S. Greenhouse Gas Abatement Mapping Initiative, Reducing U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions: How Much at What Cost? (Washington, DC: McKinsey & Company, December 2007): 38, http://www.mckinsey.com/clientservice/ccsi/pdf/US_ghg_final_report.pdf (accessed 4 May 2008). Gas furnaces that are 15 years old or older achieve an average efficiency of 78 percent (federal minimum efficiency standards), according to Rocky Mountain Institute (RMI), Home Energy Briefs: #4 Space Heating, 2004,
http://www.rmi.org/images/PDFs/HEBs/E04-14_HEB4_SpaceHeat.pdf (accessed 1 February 2008),
2. The majority of new gas furnaces and boilers rated as Energy Star achieve 92 percent efficiency; while the majority of oil furnaces and boilers do not meet this efficiency level, some do, according to EPA and DOE’s Energy Star Web site, http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=furnaces.pr_furnaces and
http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=boilers.pr_boilers (accessed 1 March 2008).

Replace inefficient windows with high-efficiency windows: California Energy Efficiency Campaign, Flex Your Power, Energy Savings Tips, http://www.flexyourpower.org/res/tools/energy_tips.html (accessed 10 March 2008).

Caulk/weather-strip your home: California Energy Efficiency Campaign, Flex Your Power, Energy Savings Tips, http://www.flexyourpower.org/res/tools/energy_tips.html (accessed 10 March 2008); and National Audubon Society, Audubon’s Energy Guide 2006, Green House Effects. Both sources indicate that “...air leakage accounts for up to 10 percent of a homeowner’s total annual energy bill.” Ten percent of that bill could be saved by a professional door fan–based intervention program for air leaks. Further, more simple do-it-yourself measures would save 10 percent of annual heating (and cooling) energy consumption, which corresponds to the figures under “caulk/weather-strip” in Table 2, G. Gardner and P. Stern, “The Short List: The Most Effective Actions U.S. Households Can Take to Curb Climate Change,” Environment 50, no. 5: 17–18.

Space Conditioning: Air Conditioning

Turn up your thermostat: California Energy Efficiency Campaign, Flex Your Power, Energy Savings Tips, http://www.flexyourpower.org/res/tools/energy_tips.html (accessed 10 March 2008).

Install/upgrade attic insulation and ventilation: RMI, Home Energy Briefs: #3 Space Cooling, 2004, http://www.rmi.org/images/PDFs/HEBs/E04-13_HEB3_SpaceCool.pdf (accessed 1 February 2008), 1–2. According to this source, passive cooling measures that lessen heat gain in a home (mainly from solar radiation and higher outside than inside air temperature) “…can reduce energy bills by up to 40 percent (citing the U.S. Department of Energy).” These passive cooling measures include attic insulation and ventilation. The authors conservatively assume that attic insulation and/or ventilation installation or upgrades would save 25 percent of annual cooling energy consumption.

Install more efficient air conditioning equipment: The authors conservatively assumed that 50 percent and 25 percent of U.S. households have central A/C or window/wall A/C units, respectively, extrapolating from the most recent sources available (DOE, EIA, Trends in Residential Air-Conditioning Usage from 1978 to 1997, 2 August 2000),
http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/consumptionbriefs/recs/actrends/recs_ac_trends.html). These two percentages were used to weight our calculations. Pre-1992 central and window/wall air condition units have average seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER) values of 6 and energy efficiency ratio (EER) values of 8, respectively; “prevalent” current models have SEER values of 13 and EER values of 12, respectively. RMI, Home Energy Briefs: #3 Space Cooling, 2004, Home Energy Briefs: #3 Space Cooling, 2004, http://www.rmi.org/images/PDFs/HEBs/E04-13_HEB3_SpaceCool.pdf (accessed 1 February 2008), 7; and U.S. Greenhouse Gas Abatement Mapping Initiative, Reducing U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions: How Much at What Cost? (Washington, DC: McKinsey & Company, December 2007), 38,
http://www.mckinsey.com/clientservice/ccsi/pdf/US_ghg_final_report.pdf (accessed 4 May 2008). The weighted savings from current compared to pre-1992 models is 2.2 percent of total annual household and/or individual energy consumption.

Replace poor windows with high-efficiency windows: California Energy Efficiency Campaign, Flex Your Power, Energy Savings Tips, http://www.flexyourpower.org/res/tools/energy_tips.html (accessed 10 March 2008).

Caulk/weather-strip home: See sources for same actions under “space conditioning: heat.”

Water Heat

Turn down water heater thermostat from 140° F to 120° F: RMI, Home Energy Briefs: #5 Water Heating, 2004,
http://www.rmi.org/images/PDFs/HEBs/E04-15_HEB5_WaterHeat.pdf (accessed 1 February 2008), 2; and DOE, EERE, “Lower Water Heating Temperatures for Energy Savings,” A Consumer’s Guide to Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, (11 January 2008), http://www.eere.energy.gov/ consumer/your_home/space_heating_cooling/index.cfm/mytopic=12720 (accessed 25 January 2008).

Install a more efficient water heater: Upgrading from energy factor (EFS) 0.54 to 0.7. DOE, Office of Codes and Standards, Results and Methodology of the Engineering Analysis for Residential Water Heater Efficiency Standards (November 1998),
http://www.eere.energy.gov/buildings/appliance_standards/information_resources.html; and RMI, Home Energy Briefs: #5 Water Heating, 2004, http://www.rmi.org/images/PDFs/HEBs/E04-15_HEB5_WaterHeat.pdf (accessed 1 February 2008).

Lighting

Do not leave one 60-watt incandescent bulb on all night, and replace two 100-watt incandescent kitchen bulbs with 75-watt incandescent bulbs: Based on an estimate of 2,000 kilowatt hour total annual lighting energy consumption per household. WorldWatch Institute, Good Stuff—Lighting, http://www.worldwatch.org/node/1494 (accessed 24 June 2008).

Replace 85 percent of all incandescent bulbs with equally bright compact fluorescent (CFL) bulbs: RMI, Home Energy Briefs: #2 Lighting, 2004, http://www.rmi.org/images/PDFs/HEBs/E04-12_HEB2_Lighting.pdf (accessed 1 February 2008), 2. This source was updated February 2008 with an actual retail store search of commonly available CFL bulbs, holding illumination (lumens) constant.

Refrigeration/Freezing


Turn up refrigerator thermostat from 33° F to 38° F and freezer thermostat from –5° F to 0° F: These target values are those recommended by the EPA and DOE’s Energy Star Web site, Residential Refrigerators, http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=refrig.pr_refrigerators (accessed 5 March 2008). Calculations were based on RMI, Home Energy Briefs: #8 Kitchen Appliances, 2004, http://www.rmi.org/images/PDFs/HEBs/E04-18_HEB8_KitchenApps.pdf (accessed 1 February 2008), 3.

Install a more efficient refrigerator unit by replacing a 19–24 cubic feet top-freezer unit bought between 1993 and 2000 with a new Energy Star unit: Based on the EPA and DOE’s Energy Star Web site, Refrigerator Retirement Savings Calculator, http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?fuseaction=refrig.calculator (accessed 5 March 2008).

Clothes Washing and Drying

Change washer temperature settings from hot wash, warm rinse to warm wash, cold rinse: Derived from RMI, Home Energy Briefs: #6 Cleaning Appliances, 2004,
http://www.rmi.org/images/PDFs/HEBs/E04-16_HEB6_CleanApps.pdf (accessed 1 February 2008), 2.

Line dry clothing five months of the year (do not use dryer): Values averaged from the following sources: California Energy Efficiency Campaign, Flex Your Power, Residential Overview, Product Guides, Clothes Dryers, http://www.flexyourpower.org/res/tools/products_results.html?id=100144 (accessed 22 June 2008), 1; EPA, State Action Plans Database, Residential, Appliance Energy Efficiency, Energy Efficiency Improvements in Household Appliances, State Action Plans, State and Regional Climate Actions Table, State Action Policies: Utah, http://yosemite.epa.gov/OAR/globalwarming.nsf/UniqueKeyLookup/RAMR5ECRCK/$File/
UtahActionPlan.pdf p. 5-3 (accessed 2 February 2008); and Project Laundry List, Laundry Tips, How Much Energy is Actually Used by the Electric Clothes Dryer? http://www.laundrylist.org/tips/faq (accessed 2 February 2008). Figures from these sources were adjusted for the fact that approximately 80 percent of U.S. residential dryers are electric and 20 percent are gas. Consumer Reports, Buying Advice: Clothes Dryers, How to Choose,
http://www.consumerreports.org/cro/appliances/laundry-and-cleaning/clothes-dryers/
reports/how-to-choose/index.htm?resultPageIndex=1&resultIndex=7&searchTerm=Buying%20advice (accessed 28 February 2008).

Install a more efficient washer by replacing a 2001 or older non–Energy Star washer with a new Energy Star unit)
: Energy consumption of washing machines is rated by the U.S. Energy Star program in terms of modified energy factor (MEF) and includes the mechanical energy to operate moving parts, energy to heat intake water, and energy needed (by a clothes dryer) after the final spin-dry cycle to remove the remaining moisture in clothes. Non–Energy Star washers manufactured pre-2002 had a typical MEF of 0.8; Energy Star models currently available typically have MEFs of 1.72. In contrast, clothes dryers are not rated nor awarded Energy Star status. The great majorities of existing and new clothes dryers use the same basic technology and do not vary significantly in energy efficiency, though new drying technologies are being developed. RMI, Home Energy Briefs: #6 Cleaning Appliances, 2004,
http://www.rmi.org/images/PDFs/HEBs/E04-16_HEB6_CleanApps.pdf (accessed 1 February 2008), 1–2; and EPA and DOE, Energy Star, Clothes Washers Key Product Criteria,
http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=clotheswash.pr_crit_clothes_washers (accessed 10 March 2008).

Color TV

Watch 25 percent fewer hours of TV each day: Energy savings equal 25 percent of the 2.5 percent value for color TV household and/or individual energy consumption in Table 1, G. Gardner and P. Stern, “The Short List: The Most Effective Actions U.S. Households Can Take to Curb Climate Change,” Environment 50, no. 5: 16.

Purchase (or trade in) 52” projection high-definition TV instead of a 48” plasma high-definition TV: Data based on National Resource Defense Council, TV Energy Efficiency Research, presented by Ecos Consulting at the TV International Stakeholder Meeting, San Francisco, CA, 28 June 2005, www.energystar.gov/ia/partners/prod_development/revisions/downloads/tv_vcr/
Ecos_Presentation.pdf (accessed 10 February 2008).

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